June 25, 2017

A wonderful opportunity to be magnanimous has slipped by

Dear Editor,

In my role as an ‘Apostle to the Gentiles’, I am involved in issues that trouble the “least among us”. I work with ex-offenders, recovering addicts, and the street people; and if there is one thing I find severely lacking in Guyana, it is the availability of mentors.

If our chronic and precipitous brain drain has done anything, it has robbed Guyana of a pool of role models and mentors, increasingly among men and boys. Therefore, whenever an occasion arises, and purely by evolutionary default, those in need of guidance look to their leaders. They look to pastors, priests, imams, doctors, lawyers and, yes, politicians.

Every year (in Guyana alone), some 400,000 citizens show up at the polls to vote for the same politicians. And whenever those politicians show up at schools, churches, and other private and public places, it is observed that they receive the finest and most cordial of treatment. So, in the recesses of the minds of those seeking for role models, there must be some exemplary qualities resident in the political fraternity.

I respected Mr Burnham. I liked to listen to him speak. I admired how he behaved as if the wealth of Guyana belonged to Guyanese. But I never liked him. I lived on Laing Avenue, and I could remember as a little boy how on Sundays he would ride his big white horse as his helpers handed out cassava sticks, pigeon peas seeds, cutlasses, forks and the like. Those used to be grand occasions for us little ghetto children.

However, one of the reasons I never liked him was because of how I saw him treat women. He was loose in his interactions with them. In my little mind, he behaved disrespectfully.

And after all these years, I am unable to shake that negative image of him. Of course there are other things that I encountered with him that have also helped to shape a less than favourable image of him in my mind.

I loved President Desmond Hoyte. I was fortunate to work a brief stint for him during the 1997 campaign. I was stationed at the Congress Place at Sophia, and worked in the public relations department. Mr Hoyte conducted himself professionally at all times. And after all these years, I am unable to shake that positive image of him.

And that brings me back to the fray of the saga between Justice Franklin Holder and Attorney General Basil Williams. Many children at the primary and high school levels are listening and looking at how this story has descended into a blame game between two grown public figures. Parents and teachers are talking about it and taking sides. Relatives and friends are defining the battle lines, and the children are watching and listening.

Mr Williams continues to say that he did nothing wrong nor unusual in that courtroom. The Judge is maintaining that he (the Judge) was disrespected. However, the Judge did not do what most Judges do when they feel disrespected in their courtrooms. He refused, and still continues to refuse, to hold the AG in contempt of court.

Therefore, the least the goodly Attorney General could have done, as an overture, was to apologise. Such an apology would have been used by teachers and parents, family and friends to show that civility exists, even at the highest levels of our judicial and governmental systems.

The AG would have moved up a notch in the estimation of some of his detractors. The Judge would have accepted the apology, and might have even had occasion to favour him.

Now the moment has been lost. The AG has stonewalled and refused to apologise. The Judge has recused himself. A wonderful opportunity to be magnanimous has slipped by. A ‘teaching moment’ on public display has been lost; and a rare opportunity to be some young child’s role model has been squandered.

Maybe some public figures do not understand the weight of their office; not only professionally but socially. So let’s hope that the new Judge does not come to this case haunted by the memories of some void of a role model. Let’s also hope that the new judge is not perturbed by the realities of this case. For if either of those possibilities informs the emotions of the new Justice, the AG might well find that he would have lost corn and husk.


Pastor W P Jeffrey

Practical Christianity Ministries


Wismar Massacre to be commemorated in NYC

Dear Editor

The 100th Anniversary Foundation, NY, a NGO, has issued a release saying it will commemorate the 1964 Wismar Massacre at a special Remembrance ceremony in Richmond Hill on Friday evening, May 26.

The NGO said that May 26th should not be a day for only celebrations. It noted that during May 1964, some 3000 Indo Guyanese were victims of a massacre in Wismar. It is known as the WISMAR MASSACRE OF INDIANS.

This year marks the 53rd  anniversary of that  PNC preplanned annihilation of Indians.

The independent media described the 1964 Wismar Massacre as “an orchestrated orgy of violence against peaceful Indians”. It was known by police as the Terrorist Group’s X13 Plan.

The 26th May attack at Wismar left an indelible scar on Guyanese who witnessed or experienced it; it remains a trauma to those who are still alive. It affected all Guyanese. Thus, it cannot be a day for celebration by anyone, and even much less so by Guyanese in the diaspora.

Guyanese must embrace history and be willing to learn from its varied lessons. The 100th Anniversary Foundation, NY, notes that “we fully understand that we cannot separate ourselves from our history no more than can we separate ourselves from our shadow”. And as such, it is commemorating the sacrifices and contributions that those victims have made towards Guyanese society.

A Remembrance ceremony is planned for this May 26 from 7 to 10 PM at 110-17 101 Ave to pay tribute to the victims of the Wismar Massacre and to hear from some of the victims who are still alive.


Yours truly,

Vishnu Bisram

5 ‘Advisors’ for Guyana’s Attorney General may be a world record

Dear Editor,

Every person who has ever served in the office of Attorney General and Minister of Legal Affairs must have felt a profound sense of flattery when they learnt that the current holder of the office was gifted three (3) retired Judges — one from the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), one from the Court of Appeal of Guyana, and one from the High Court of Guyana — along with two (2) law professors, each possessing a doctorate in law, to assist him in the discharge of the functions of that office.

I doubt that I can be contradicted in my assertion that this is a world record.

I was particularly touched because I held this office in my thirties, serving a minority Government which presented me with new, unique and unprecedented legal challenges. Conscious of the risk of being accused of blowing my own trumpet, from all objective indicators, I acquitted myself well, if not with distinction. I did it “my way” and without a constellation of highly decorated help, but only with the hard working staff at the Chambers. The only extra authorized cost incurred by the State at my behest was a few thousand Guyana dollars per month as subscriptions fees for professional law reports. For that I was criminally charged!

It is common knowledge that, under our constitutional structure, ministers hold office at the pleasure and confidence of the President. In my view, the appointment of these highly decorated personnel by the President to assist the Attorney General in the discharge of his official duties is a most diplomatic expression of no confidence in this minister as there can ever be. It is obvious that the President feels constrained to act in any other manner in relation to the Chairman of his political party.

Notwithstanding, any self-respecting professional placed in such precarious conundrum as this minister should do nothing less than tender his resignation in dignity.

I was accused of all manner of things by all manner of people, especially on social media, for requesting the State to continue to pay my subscriptions for the now infamous law reports. The sum of money which the State is alleged to have contributed to those subscriptions is just over two million Guyana dollars, in three years. Let us now examine the cost that this Attorney General would impose monthly on the backs of taxpayers for the services of these five advisors, retained obviously because of manifest incompetence.

Having regard to the calibre of the persons retained, I surmise that their remuneration package will include a salary of no less than G$750,000 (net) per month, light, telephone, internet and a driver (at a minimum) to be paid for, and salary for at least two support staff each.

I now wait to hear from all those who spoke on my issue as protectors of taxpayers’ money. I expect them, in their condemnation, to ask of President Granger this fundamental question: “Would it not be in the best interest of the nation, and save taxpayers millions, to appoint a competent person to serve in the position of Attorney General and Minister of Legal Affairs instead?”


Mohabir Anil Nandlall, MP


Is Guyana capable and ready for ecotourism?

Dear Editor,

The current ecological concerns in Mazaruni, Region Seven, the gold industry’s spill of the recent past, the high level of bauxite industry pollution in Linden, and the opening of the oil industry all beg the question: “Are we capable and ready for ecotourism?”

Lack of consistency in the Government’s (current and past) ability to deal with the prevention of pollution and lasting disruption to the ecosystem of Guyana makes it difficult to give full confidence in the nation’s future oil industry’s ability to prevent a serious natural disaster, much so in the case of the usage of an island to process the oil.

The ministry in Guyana that deals with such environmental protection issues should not be incapable of preventing these serious disasters from happening in industries such as gold and bauxite, which have been the bedrock of our growth for over 20 years.

However, the evidence shows otherwise. The populace of the country must demand a high level of accountability for such failures to monitor, protect, and prevent environmental disasters. The attitude of “just show me the money” and turning a blind eye on the bad and unhealthy practices of those we do business with will not help us attain our goals of a green economy that is sustainable, but would instead hinder — and in some cases, send the nation backwards in its development. A holistic approach to economic development and the sustaining of the environment must be at the core of our decision-making and economic development. It is not profitable for any nation to neglect the environment as it retrieves natural resources, as most of the profit could be easily compromised in a major clean up.

If ecotourism is a core objective, as promoted and as illustrated in the land we have dedicated as a national reserve, why are we not aligning our efforts to support this vision? This is a question that should be addressed in the activities being pursued and supported by the national budget each year. Private and public investments are trying to support and be consistent with the national purpose as outlined by the incumbent and past administrations. Investment, both local and foreign, will be impacted by the level of confidence that investors have in our ability to stick with, and achieve, our outlined goals and vision for the country.

Today, to regain such confidence, clear and effective actions with measurable outcomes are needed in the resolution of the environmental problems that have been created.


Jamil Changlee


Sunil Narine also has good batting skills

Dear Editor,

I am in India for almost two weeks now to attend the “Indian Diaspora Indentured Academic Conference” held over the weekend in New Delhi where I presented a paper on Indian Indentureship in Guyana and the Caribbean.  I used the occasion also to enjoy cricket in which several West Indians are participating in the Indian Professional League (IPL) cricket tournament.

Wherever I travelled in India and at 20/20 IPL matches, because of my ‘English’ accent,  curious questions arise on my nationality as Indians would say “I look Indian”, and they want to know how come I speak English differently from them. Of course I am Indian as being born in Guyana does not make me non-Indian. And having Guyanese nationality does not make me a non-Indian in terms of race or ethnicity. It is easiest to say to Indians that I am from West Indies with which Indians easily identify or relate to in terms of cricket because of the several West Indian players in the IPL and the many Indo-Caribbean players who toured or played against India.  Samuel Badree, Sunil Narine, Chris Gayle, etc,  are well known by Indians. And then questions arise about the great bowling ability and, of late, the batting skill of Sunil Narine in 20/20 and the batting prowess of Shivnarine Chanderpaul in Tests, and why he is not allowed an opportunity to break Brian Lara’s record as the highest run maker in Tests for West Indian batsmen.

Everyone knows Sunil Narine (Indians pronounced his name as Na-ra-yan – a high Brahmin pandit caste) as among the best 20/20 bowlers in the word. But Indians and the world do not know about his batting skills. He has had some lusty hits in the IPL this year and in the Big Bash in Australia. He also played for Guyana Amazon Warriors in the CPL.

Not many know that Narine is also a batsman. Earlier this year, during field research on outstanding Indo-Caribbean cricketers in Trinidad, I learn that Sunil Narine started out as a batsman in club cricket in his native Trinidad. He did not do well as a batsman when he started out his cricket career. He tried some bowling in order to be an all-rounder (batsman-bowler so his selection can be justified) where he also did not impress. So he decided he would focus on bowling. Fast or medium pace bowling was not his niche, and he did not have ability as a pace-man. So he focused on spinning.  Off spinning did not work. So he focused on leg spinning where he was most effective; off spinning tend to trouble batsmen more than leg spinning.

Narine has troubled batsmen with his leg spinning ever since he started his First Class career around 2009, and he has done extremely well in the IPL as well as in other global matches in Australia, etc. He is one of the few bowlers who have taken all ten wickets in a match. So he is well-recognised as a bowler. But it is his batting ability that has surprised many – lower  down the order and lately at the top of the order. At the bottom, he has hit some lusty blows to the boundary, and more at the top of the order. He has never failed to impress, including in his latest match on Sunday night for the KKR against RCB.

Very few know that Narine has good batting skills (or experience as a batsman), having batted at the top of the order in Trinidad before becoming an exceptional bowler. He has been batting well, and his captain Gautam Gambhir has praised his batting skills. That skill was amply demonstrated in Big Bash and IPL matches. He took 18 off fellow Trini Samuel Badree, in the very first over at a 300 strike rate. And of course, Narine remains an economical bowler in 20/20 and other formats of the game.

Yours faithfully,

Vishnu Bisram


The working class facing tough times

Dear Editor,

We are approaching another May Day, the holiday of the working people. It is a time when workers celebrate their achievements and contemplate their future. This year, unfortunately, the toiling masses of Guyana have nothing to celebrate and a lot of concerns for the future.

In just two years, the PNC-led APNU regime has done great damage to our economy. It is the working people who are feeling the brunt of the pressures as a result of the regime’s faulty economic policies.

Indeed, the conditions of life for workers have deteriorated drastically. What we are witnessing is an onslaught on the working class.

Thousands of jobs are being lost in the Private Sector. Many small- and medium-scale enterprises are closing their doors, leaving their labour on the breadline.

As if this was not bad enough, we see the massive attack on the sugar workers. The sugar industry is being decimated. The Wales Estate has been closed, leaving almost 2000 workers out of employment.

This is one of the direct consequences of the Government’s action.

More people are affected as well. All the cane farmers in the Canals will be forced out, and the hundreds of workers whom they employ will also be added to the ranks of the unemployed.

We also see the massive preparations being put in place to shut Rose Hall and Enmore Estates. The regime announced also that Skeldon will have to go.

Thousands of sugar workers are facing a very bleak future. However, not only the workers and their families are going to suffer, but whole communities will become depressed. It will also affect the country as a whole.

This is totally unnecessary. Sugar does not have to close. It has the possibilities to add value to its product and transform the industry from a producer of raw sugar to a complex, producing many products such as electricity, alcohol, ethanol, refined sugar, and other special types of sugar. That list is not exhaustive. The investments to do these things are not so great.

The Indian Government had offered assistance to recapitalise the industry and allow it to develop into a complex. Indian companies have shown great interest in the sugar sector.

A healthy relation can develop between GuySuCo and those companies in India and also in Brazil. However, the APNU regime has so far ignored the Indian interests and has not pursued the Brazilian option.

The regime is not interested in saving the industry. They seem gung-ho to close sugar.

It is not accidental. This regime is anti-working people. This is not just an attack on sugar workers; no, it is an attack on the whole working class.

This May Day 2017, working people and their trade unions and other organisations must rethink their strategy and tactics.  All efforts must be made for unity of all working people.

Disunity in the face of the onslaught by the regime is allowing for the reversal of the gains working people have made in recent times.


This is my view.

What is yours?

Donald Ramotar

Former President


What returns did the three-day State visit to The Bahamas by Granger and team garner for Guyana?

Dear Editor,

It was reported in the Tribune, a Bahamian newspaper, on March 2, 2017 that President David Granger and his select cohort arrived in The Bahamas for a three-day State visit in a private plane. Thinking that there was an error with the report, since there was no possible justifiable reason to use a private plane instead of a commercial flight (whether first class or otherwise), my further investigation revealed that not only was this report of the use of a private plane accurate, but it was further evidence of insensitive profligacy and waste of taxpayers’ money by President Granger.

The investigation revealed that not only three Ministers, one of whom is his son-in-law (Mr Gaskin, the Minister of Business), but a team of speech writers, bodyguards, assistants, and media personnel accompanied President Granger on this private plane and for whom daily stipends and accommodation had to be provided at the hotel, the rates of which are about US$430 per night. In addition, a number of gifts were purchased and presented to the Bahamian Government all bought and paid for with taxpayers money. The total spent on this three-day trip was about G$18 million. The cost of the private plane alone was about G$8 million.

Two questions ought to have been asked by the media which holds the significant responsibility of being the fourth estate on behalf of the people of Guyana: 1) How could President Granger justify the use of a private plane instead of a commercial flight? 2) What investment did the three-day State visit garner for Guyana?

Of course, the media can be partially forgiven since President Granger assiduously avoids answering questions by dodging and not holding press conferences. But most sections of the media are also complicit by neglecting to ask President Granger the hard questions when the impromptu opportunity arises, quietly hoping instead to receive the perks of free travel with the Head of State or his Ministers, while Guyana continues along a path of visionless high-tax submersion and wasteful spending.

With admittedly dwindling investment and a reduction in all of the productive sectors except for gold, it is now obvious why there has been this urgency to increase taxes and an emphasis on increased tax collection – the “good life for the government”. This, ironically, on the authority of a president who has collected over G$50 million in salary since his assumption of office as President but pays not a single penny of tax on his income.

Guyanese are feeling the squeeze more than ever and struggling to make ends meet while our President displays his manifest insensitivity to our circumstances in grandiose style by driving around in Lexuses with large entourages and security detail and travel internationally by private planes. If the Bahamian newspaper did not publish the use of the private plane by President Granger, it certainly makes one question how would Guyanese ever have known about it or worse what else do we not know?

When times are hard, we expect our leaders to be sensitive to our struggles and not flaunt the “great life” in our faces. The famous Guyanese saying “he who feels it knows it” and with the “great life” the Government now enjoys it raises the question whether decisions can be made in the best interest of the Guyanese people, who need the support of a government who “knows it”. Leadership begins with responsibility, but lasting change happens by example.


Charles S Ramson


The last ship

The SS Ganges was the last ship to bring Indian indentured labourers to British Guiana. It arrived in Georgetown on April 18, 1917 with 437 men, women and children destined for various plantations.

The ship had left India just four days before the Abolition Act was signed in the Indian Parliament on March 12, 1917. After sailing from Calcutta with 124 persons, or just over a third of the labour contingent, it then docked in Madras to pick up the rest of the indentured workers before setting sail for the Caribbean.

Among the last arrivals there were 39 children, 22 of whom were boys; and of the adults, there were 268 men and 130 women.

The largest contingent of 218 (including their children) was contracted to 11 Demerara plantations stretching from Cane Grove to De Kinderen. The largest batch – 28 persons — went to work at Non Pareil; and just two persons, most likely a married couple, were contracted to Diamond Estate.

Nine Berbice plantations received 150 of the last arrivals, with the majority — a group of 26 — being contracted to the Port Mourant Estate; and 69 of the labourers were assigned to four estates in Essequibo.

The SS Ganges sailed on to Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, where 389 adults and 32 children disembarked. With this final stop, the transportation of Indian indentured labourers to the British colonies ceased.

Interestingly, this last group of labourers served a shortened period of indentureship. An Act in the British Parliament brought the scheme to an official end, and all indenture contracts were cancelled on January 1, 1920.

However, the scheme’s contractual nature had always meant that each labourer had a personal contract to complete, after which their own indentureship would have come to an end.

By 1917, the country’s population had comprised 42% Indians. That percentage rose to as high as 51% before undergoing a steady decline over the past 50 years to drop to the 1917 census figure again.

The reasons for this decline are varied, but have much to do with the cultural and political hostility faced by the Indian population; hostility which erupted into episodes of ethnic violence over those 50 years. Within the Caribbean region, Indians comprise about 20% of the population, and this minority status gives impetus to the regional marginalisation of this community.

Indians in the Caribbean, as the late Professor Rex Nettleford of UWI once stated, had to “learn to be West Indian”. Though he later corrected his remark to be more politically correct vis-`a-vis Caribbean diversity, his utterance does align closely to the truth of the region’s policy towards race and cultural relations pertaining to its Indian populations.

In the islands with smaller groups of Indians, like Jamaica, the Indian presence has largely been assimilated, reflecting Nettleford’s experience; but in Guyana and Trinidad, Indians, as large populations, continue the struggle for recognition and for their cultural and human rights.

Our presence in Guyana is being made invisible even by the reluctance of successive governments to digitise and preserve the Indian immigration and indentureship records, which languish and steadily deteriorate in the National Archives. Of the Indian diaspora communities, Guyana is the only one where this preservation project attracts little or no state support.

Marking the end of the indentureship programme is bittersweet. While many of the descendants of our fore-parents have made good lives here and in North America, the facts of the poverty and famine in India that drove them to board ships to seek a better life, and the facts of the brutality and hardships they faced on the sugar plantations can never be glossed over.

And that history is not yet over, as sugar estates face closure and the consequent loss of the traditional estate work on which many still depend. While some closures might be justified in a changed global economy, the Granger Administration’s lack of concern about the future of the retrenched workers is a grim reminder of the ruthlessness of the colonial era.

Except for the First Nations, we are all here because of sugar, and when the SS Whitby dropped anchor off Plantation Highbury on the Berbice River on May 5, 1838, it was an historic occasion. The labourers who stepped off that ship stepped into history. They were not only the first Indians to arrive in British Guiana, but were the first to arrive in the Western world.

Since President David Granger has declared days of special observances for the arrival of the Chinese and Portuguese to Guyana, perhaps he would now correct the official name of the May 5th holiday and give it its rightful title of “Indian Arrival Day”.

‘Educational Exchanges’ Russian Government provides invaluable opportunities for Guyanese

Every year since the establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and Guyana in 1970, the Russian Government provides scholarships to Guyanese for studies in Russia.

More than 100 Guyanese, including doctors, engineers, politicians and diplomats, have graduated from the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN).

Dr. Shivasram Itwaru

Dr. Shivasram Itwaru

In 2016, two Guyanese received Russian Government scholarship to study medicine in RUDN. This year another two scholarships were granted – one focused on oil and gas studies, a prospective Guyanese industrial field.

The Ministry of Natural Resources of Guyana will designate a group of Guyanese students for training as oil and gas technicians in Russia as agreed during the 1st Meeting of the Working Group in the Field of Geology and Mining in October 2016 in Moscow.

The application for scholarship to study linguistics in Russia for 2017/2018 academic year can be made at Russia study website until May 1, 2017.

Russia is famous for its quality education and offers a wide range of technical and humanitarian studies. Twenty-four Russian Universities, including Moscow State University, are within 2016 Times Higher Education top ranking list. The detailed guide on Russian Universities is available online at www.znanie.info.

The Russian Embassy in Guyana believes that the friendly relations Russia and Guyana have been enjoying for decades will continue to develop through educational exchanges.

Below Dr. Shivasram Itwaru, a doctor who is benefiting from the scholarship programme, comments on his recent experience at Moscow University.

“I am Dr. Shivasram Itwaru, a medical doctor attached to the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation and currently studying in Russia. I never thought I would be ever studying in Russia as the country seemed to be a very distant place. Nevertheless, I’m here in beautiful Russia. I’m very happy to be at RUDN pursuing a Residency in Cardiology/Internal Medicine.

I always supposed that Russia was a gloomy place, but this turned out to be wrong. Russia is a very lively and delightful place. It has a lot of different memorials, beautiful parks and it is definitely a place where anyone could find what he/she likes. Currently I live in Moscow on campus at RUDN. The University is very huge and scenic. The academic programs offered are demanding and challenging, thus students have to spend lots of time reading, which is a usual scene across campus, at study halls, library, in the park, and other places.

At RUDN there are students from more than 150 countries, as such you are given the wonderful opportunity to interact and learn not only about Russia, but other countries as well.

I have not been that long in Russia, however I have already visited several places. Firstly, the famous Red Square is mesmerizing. It has lots of historic buildings, beautiful cathedral, old castle wall and much more. This usually attracts the attention of many tourists. My visit to the well-known Gorky Park and Sokolniki Park was breath-taking. The parks cover large areas where you can be at peace with nature.

It must be mentioned that the Russian people are very affable and polite, which definitely makes you feel at home in Russia. I have been to a lot of places across the world and I am happy to say that Russia is one of the best experiences I ever had.

Thanks to the Russian people and the Government for affording me this experience and the opportunity to study here.” (Press release from Russian Embassy in Guyana)


There is need to reward excellence in public service

Dear Editor,

As we continue to embrace our national strategy towards a sustainable economy with a focus on ecotourism, we must also continue to develop our reward systems for commitment and excellence in public service.

For time spent providing exemplary work as a teacher, nurse or doctor, Police Officer, soldier, fireman/firewoman, or in other areas within Government regardless of party affiliation, workers should be given the opportunity to obtain subsidised housing and access to preferential financing rates. This will attract more candidates to these crucial roles in our society and help ease the heaviest financial burden our citizens undertake, while at the same time fostering economic growth in the housing sector. Also, in the area of teaching, the awarding of tenure for proven success in public schools will help retain top talent and encourage entry into the profession.

Continued investment in our infrastructure, specifically in the maintenance and upkeep of our courts, police stations, army bases, schools, hospitals and fire stations should continue to be a top priority in the area of ongoing Government investments and expenses.

It is essential that our key institutions:

reflect the level of quality that our fellow Guyanese would enjoy being a part of foster confidence in the general public and visiting tourists stay competitive versus other tourist destinations

Given the size of our Government, the additional growth this investment will spur in the construction sector should not be overlooked. As the nation grows, we must not forsake that which forms the foundation that allows us to support our growth.

Working closely on an agreed agenda with the unions and institutions representing our public servants is a must for any government to be successful in designing enhancements in the worker benefits provided to Government workers. The above examples of benefits that could be additionally provided are at a very low cost to the Government given the design of the benefits package. The mentioned investment in the upkeep of the infrastructure of these cornerstone institutions in our nation should be viewed as both necessary and beneficial by administrations focused on economic growth. To govern is to provide a service to those who have empowered you to do so, and public servants make it possible for any government to serve its people well.

Best regards,

Jamil Changlee